Méthodes d’évaluation de l’exposition des agriculteurs aux pesticides

Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 12: 91-108

Three Methods to Assess Levels of Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides in the Urban and Peri-urban Areas of Northern Benin

Armel Joël Lawson1, Hermine Akohou1, Stéphanie Lorge3, and Bruno Schiffers4*

1Laboratoire de Phytopharmacie
2Bureau Environnement et Analyses
3Laboratoire de Phytopharmacie; ULg/Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Université de Liège, Passage des Déportés 2, 5030, Gembloux, Belgium

Abstract. Small farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Northern Benin use pesticides without respect of hygiene rules and any personal protective equipment (PPE). Based on observation of the local practices in Djougou, Gogounou and Parakou,field trials have been carried out under similar conditions to evaluate contamination and exposure levels of farmers, using three usual sampling methods (Visual Method, Patch Method and Whole Body Method). Both Visual and Patch Methods used dye and ghost ink as tracers. In the Whole Body trials, deltamethrin (PLAN D 25 EC) was used as insecticide treatment. Deposits were observed on the protective equipment and on the collectors. Tartrazine was determined by colorimetry and deltamethrin by gas chromatography with ECD detector (GC-ECD). The examination of protective equipment (Visual Method) showed that the whole body could be potentially exposed to pesticides. Hands were contaminated during the preparation and the loading of mixture up to sprayer rinsing. The Patch Method was not perfectly able to predict the contamination pattern on the farmers’ body. The Whole Body Method results appeared to be more variable and influenced by the skill of each operator compared to the Patch Method. The contamination levels observed were rather higher than the value estimated with a theoretical model (from 368 to 2867 mg of deltamethrin at the total/body). With PPE, the average exposure reached 3.25 mg/kg bw/day. Without PPE, the potential exposure was equal to 32.52 mg/kg bw/day. Both values far exceed the AOEL of deltamethrin (0.0075 mg/kg bw/day) indicating a high risk level for the operator. The theoretical used model (UK-POEM) was unable to predict the potential exposure outcomes measured in these trials.

Keywords. Backpack sprayers, exposure assessment, pesticides, small scale growers

*Corresponding author: Bruno.Schiffers@ulg.ac.be

Parasitic Nematodes Moringa In Niamey

Journal Of Phytopathology and pest Management 4(1):28-37, 2017
pISSN: 2356-8577
eISSN: : 2356-6507
Journal Homepage: http://ppmj.net/

Plant-Parasitic nematode communities associated with Moringa tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.)  in western Niger

A. Haougui1*, A. Basso1, I. Mossi Maiga2

1Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du Niger
2Université of Tillabéri, Niger

Abstract. Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a crop that becoming more and more important in Niger, but very little attention gas been devoted to its pest problems. Nematode fauna survey was undertaken in three important Moringa producing sites in western Niger. Soil and root samples where taken from the plant’s rhizosphere at 20-30 cm deep. Nematological analysis of these samples revealed the presence of 11 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes among which the most frequent and abundant where Meloidogyne spp., helicothylencus spp. and Hoplolaimus spp. The average prominence values of these three nematodes where 236.69, 105.25 and 97.93 respectively. In roots, Meloidogyne spp. alone represented up to 90% of the plant-parasitic nematode communities. Its average prominent value was 591.46.

Keywords. Moringa oleifera, vegetable crop, plant-parasitic nematodes, Niger

* Corresponding author: Adamou Haougui, e-mails: ahaougui@yahoo.com

Nématodes parasites du moringa à Niamey

Les nématodes parasites du Moringa dans la zone périurbaine de Niamey (Niger)

A. Haougui1*, A. Basso1, I. Mossi Maiga2

1Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du Niger
2Université of Tillabéri, Niger

Résumé. Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) est une culture qui prend de plus en plus de l’importance au Niger mais très peu d’intérêt a été porté aux problèmes phytosanitaires. L’objectif de l’étude était d’identifier les nématodes parasites qui lui sont associés. Pour cela, une enquête faunistique a été entreprise dans 3 sites de l’un des bassins de production du Moringa au Niger. Des échantillons de sol et de racines ont été prélevés dans la rhizosphère à 20 à 30 cm de profondeur. L’analyse nématologique des échantillons a révélé la présence de 11 genres de phytonématodes dont les plus fréquents et abondants étaient Meloidogyne spp., Helicotylenchus spp. et Hoplolaimus spp. Les proéminences moyennes de ces trois nématodes étaient respectivement 236.69, 105.25 et 97.93. Dans les racines, les Meloidogyne spp. constituait à lui seul près de 90% des populations de nématodes phytoparasites. Sa proéminence moyenne était de 591.46.

Mot clé. Moringa oleifera, culture maraîchère, nématodes parasites, Niger

* Corresponding author: Adamou Haougui, e-mails: ahaougui@yahoo.com

Ci-dessous la version anglaise (original)

Promising molecular tools for studying Habrobracon hebetor

European Journal of Entomology
Eur. J. 113: 265-269, 2016
©Institute of Entomology, Biology Center, Czech Academy of Sciences České Budějovice
doi: 10.14411/eje.2016.031
ISSN (online): 1802-8829

A new suite of twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite loci in the parasitic wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Promising molecular tools for studying the population genetics of several beneficial braconid species


1Direction Générale de la Protection des Végétaux, Ministère de l’Agriculture, BP323, Niamey, Niger; e-mail: garba_madougou@yahoo.fr
2UMR (INRAA / IRDC  / CiradB / Montpellier SupAgro) Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, 755 avenue du Campus Agropolis, CS 30016, F-34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez, France; e-mails: loiseau@supagro.inra.fr, laure.benoit@cirad.fr, nathalie.gauthier@ird.fr, nathalie.gauthier@supagro.inra.fr

Abstract. Combining a biotin-enrichment protocol and 454GS-FLX titanium pyrosequencing technology, we characterised 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the parasitic wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a cosmopolitan species commonly used in biological control against a wide range of both major lepidopterous pests of stored products and field crops in different parts of the world. Three multiplex PCR sets were optimised and characterised across 46 H. hebetor specimens from two samples collected from millet fields in Niger. Two to 11 alleles were found per locus and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.289 to 0.826. Polymorphism was detected in both samples with a similar level of observed heterozygosity (0.482 vs. 0.502) and number of alleles (4.1 vs. 3.6). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected at the same five loci in both samples and five or seven more loci in each sample but was not associated with heterozygote deficiencies. Even though evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found between a few alleles, these new loci segregated independently. The variability of the 22 loci will enable estimates of genetic diversity and structure patterns, as well as gene flow between H. hebetor populations at different spatial scales. Cross-species amplifications were successful among the six Bracons pp. tested and nine loci will be particularly appropriate for population genetic studies in B. brevicornis.

Key words. Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Habrobracon hebetor, Bracon spp., biological control, parasitic wasp, microsatellite, population genetics, gene flow

* Corresponding author; e-mails: nathalie.gauthier@ird.fr, nathalie.gauthier@supagro.inra.fr